The Netscape Biscuit Company serves up a snack that knows you

Pull up a glass of milk. Let's talk about cookies and what they mean to government
World Wide Web sites.

Persistent-client-state Hypertext Transfer Protocol "cookies" in client
browsers can tell Web servers specific things about the users who access them. Cookies
have been around for more than a year, but only recently have webmasters started using
them to track usage and custom-tailor their page presentations.

Cookies can be a powerful tool for serving repeat visitors. For instance, a Securities
and Exchange Commission site could recognize visitors and sort its filings the way they
want them--by company name, transaction amount or date. A government contracting office
site could consult a cookie and immediately display the visitor's account status plus a
checklist of deliverables.

Here's how you mix cookies. You set up the Web server to populate a database with
information about a visitor or to create a data string that's stored in the visitor's
browser for later retrieval--or a combination of the two.

The server automatically picks up basic information such as IP address, time of visit,
user preferences and pages visited. Other information can be collected with an optional
on-line form.

When a form is filled in, a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) script sorts the information
and compresses the results into a character string, little more than a single line, for
storage in the browser's cookie file. This can hold all the collected information or just
a series of keys to trigger retrieval of other information from the server's database.

If you use a Netscape Communications Corp. Navigator 2.0 or 3.0 browser, you probably
have an active cookie set stored on your desktop machine. Look in your Netscape folder for
the file called cookies.txt. It will list the Internet address of each server that has
modified your file, followed by a string of settings used by that server.

I'm willing to bet you'll find entries from or, which
coordinate the display of on-line advertising and use cookies to track who's seen what, so
the same ad isn't encountered at every turn. I've found cookie entries from Netscape and a
Microsoft Windows NT site on my machine.

The cookie functionality originally built into Netscape 2.0 is blossoming under the new
Version 3.0, mainly because some security holes were patched. One noticeable difference is
that you can set the 3.0 browser to notify you when your cookie file is being modified.

Where cookies turn most delicious yet potentially dangerous is in their
ingredients--the information can be abused. Netscape's Commerce Server platform, for
example, allows virtual malls where visitors put chosen items into their
""shopping carts,'' actually cookie files that track the items for payment.

A cookie contains only information you've given, or general IP information that can be
collected by any Web server, nothing more. But cookies are getting a bad reputation for
possibly holding a lot of information that users don't want shared with everyone.

Although there really isn't anything secret in your cookie file, servers can read and
write to it. If they can decipher another server's cryptic cookie string, your information
could, in theory, be passed along without your knowledge or consent.

Some sites, such as the New York Times Web site, place passwords directly into cookies.
On free sites, that's not necessarily a problem, but it would put your password at risk on
a for-pay site.

A larger problem arises when cookies are combined with JavaScripts--tiny programs sent
to a browser whenever a particular page is requested. These scripts perform tasks such as
scrolling text and launching applets.

Hackers have written JavaScripts to retrieve a user's e-mail address or to scout for
certain activity from the Netscape cache file, which documents a user's movements on the
Web. A hacker could easily use JavaScript to steal or alter cookie information. The safest
way to use cookies is with the RSA Data Security Inc. encryption feature built into
Netscape Navigator.

To develop cookies, you must have a product that lets you integrate edited Hypertext
Markup Language code into template files and database table fields. Don't tackle this
unless you have solid Structured Query Language and database administration knowledge.

Two products that come to mind are Cold Fusion Professional from Allaire Corp. of
Minneapolis, a $495 Web authoring package, and WebDBC from Nomad Development Corp. of
Seattle, a $595 set of Internet/Web server tools.

Microsoft Corp.'s Internet Explorer also supports many cookie functions, although I've
heard complaints that the implementation isn't identical. Programmers sometimes end up
creating different types of cookies for different browsers. Netcom On-line Communications
Services Inc.'s NetCruiser and Quarterdeck Corp.'s Quarterdeck Mosaic 2.0 also offer some
cookie support.

For a brief introduction to cookies, visit Netscape's page at
  For a look at how they work, visit Live Software's simple cookie demo at
  You tell this server your name, and when you visit another page on the site, it
welcomes you by name.

Shawn P. McCarthy is a computer journalist, webmaster and Internet programmer for
GCN's parent, Cahner's Publishing Co. E-mail him at


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